ما مدى مشروعية القانون الإطار رقم 17.51 للتربية والتكوين؟ "فرنسة التعليم"

ما مشروعية القانون الإطار رقم 17.51 للتربية والتكوين؟
في سياق النقاش المحتدم والمفصلي حول مشروع قانون الإطار رقم 17.51 المتعلق بمنظومة التربية والتعليم والتكوين والبحث العلمي، برزت إلى السطح مشكلة تدريس العلوم باللغة الفرنسية في كل أسلاك التعليم، بعدما كان التدريس بلغة المستعمر مقتصرا على الجامعة. وعوض العمل بالتدريج على نقل تجربة الأسلاك التعليمية الابتدائية والثانوية إلى الجامعة، تم النكوص والرجوع إلى الوراء بعقود. في هذا السياق يأتي هذا المقال الذي سنحاول أن نبرز فيه لماذا ينبغي التدريس باللغة العربية، بما فيه تدريس العلوم في الجامعة. 
قبل الحديث عن التدريس باللغة العربية، نشير إلى أن الدستور نص على أن الأمازيغية “تعد أيضا لغة رسمية للدولة، باعتبارها رصيدا مشتركا لجميع المغاربة بدون استثناء”. وأن الطريقة التي دبر بها ملف اللغة الأمازيغية هيمن عليها البعد الأيديولوجي المرتبط بالمد الفرنكفوني، ذلك أن التوجه في البداية كان ينحو اعتماد الحرف الفرنسي في كتابة الأمازيغية، وعندما ووجه بالحرف العربي، على أساس أن كلا من العربية والأمازيغية تعايشتا لقرون وكتبت الأخيرة بالحرف العربي، تم اختيار حرف تيفناغ كحل وسط، وهو ما حول قطاعا كبيرا من الأمازيغ إلى أميين في القراءة والكتابة بالأمازيغية. وكان تدريس الأمازيغية سيكون علميا وعمليا، وسهلا في الواقع، لو اعتمد الحرف العربي. لذلك نرى أن تأهيل اللغة الأمازيغية ينبغي أن يبدأ في الجامعات والمعاهد لتهيئتها لسانيا، وديداكتيكيا، وتكوين أطر قادرة على تدريسها في المراحل الأولية وفق عملية إقراء علمية، ليتحقق الهدف من ترسيمها كما حدده الدستور.
والآن نعود إلى السؤال: لماذا ينبغي التدريس باللغة العربية؟
أولا: ينص الدستور على أن اللغة العربية “تظل اللغة الرسمية للدولة. وتعمل الدولة على حمايتها وتطويرها، وتنمية استعمالها “. (الفصل الخامس 5 من الدستور). ونعتقد أن تطوير اللغة العربية وتنمية استعمالها لن يتحققا إلا إذا أصبحت هذه اللغة هي لغة الاقتصاد والعلوم، وفرص الشغل وطنيا، في الطب والهندسة وكل المهن. وعدم تفعيل ذلك يعتبر خرقا واضحا لدستور الدولة، وإعلاء لقوانين أدنى على أسمى قانون في التراتبية بين القوانين والتشريعات. ومن هذا المنطلق يحق للمغاربة أن يطالبوا بالتشبث بالدستور في المسألة اللغوية.
وعندما نتحدث عن الدستور، فهو الوثيقة التي تمثل المرجع الأعلى الذي تحتكم إليه جميع السلطات التشريعية والتنفيذية والقضائية، وهو الحَكَم في حالة الاختلاف أو تنازع الصلاحيات في ما بين هذه المؤسسات الدستورية الرسمية، أوبين مختلف النخب المجتمعية والسياسية، لأن الدستور هو الوثيقة القانونية الوحيدة التي عرضت لاستفتاء الشعب المغربي. وإلا سنكون، أمام هذا النقاش الاجتماعي والسياسي الحاد حول القانون الإطار، في حاجة ملحة ليعرض هو الآخر على الاستفتاء.
ثانيا: يعد الميثاق الوطني للتربية والتكوين الوثيقة المتوافق حولها، بعد الدستور، في مسألة التعليم وتوجهاته وأهدافه. وقد نص الميثاق بوضوح شديد لا يقبل التأويل على أهمية اللغة العربية في التعليم، وموقعها في منظومة التربية الوطنية وهوية الشعب المغربي، حيث جاء في الميثاق الوطني للتربية والتكوين: ” متمكنون من التواصل باللغة العربية، لغة البلاد الرسمية تعبيرا وكتابة”.
وتأتي اللغة العربية في الميثاق على رأس أولويات النظام التعليمي الذي كان هدفه هو الاصلاح. ولا نعتقد أن أحدا، بما فيه عامة الناس، سيفهم من عبارة” اللغة العربية” أنها تعني العامية مثلا. كما لا أحد سيفهم أن المقصود بعبارة “التواصل باللغة العربية تعبيرا وكتابة”، أن تكون لغة حديث يومي! بل إن المقصود هو أن تؤدي وظيفتها في المجالات العلمية والاقتصادية، وداخل الإدارات والشركات والمقاولات…
وتتجلى هذه الأولوية في الدعامة التاسعة التي نصت على :”تحسين تدريس اللغة العربية واستعمالها و إتقان اللغات الأجنبية “.
والمفهوم الوحيد المتعارف عليه علميا لإتقان اللغات الأجنبية هو أن يتم تدريسها بطريقة من طرائق التدريس، وليس تدريس العلوم بها. وزاد الميثاق في توضيح الصورة عبر إجراءات واضحة في المواد 111 و112 و113 على التوالي:
111 يتم تجديد تعليم اللغة العربية وتقويته، مع جعله إلزاميا لكل الأطفال المغاربة، في كل المؤسسات التربوية العاملة بالمغرب مع مراعاة الاتفاقيات الثنائية المنظمة لمؤسسات البعثات الأجنبية.
112- يستلزم الاستعداد لفتح شعب للبحث العلمي المتطور والتعليم العالي باللغة العربية إدراج هذا المجهود في إطار مشروع مستقبلي طموح، ذي أبعاد ثقافية وعلمية معاصرة.” فأين هذا المجهود؟ وأين وصل منذ ثمانية عشر 18 سنة؟
وفصل الميثاق في هذه المادة (112) بتبيان المرتكزات وهي :
التنمية المتواصلة للنسق اللساني العربي على مستويات التركيب و التوليد والمعجم؛
تشجيع حركة رفيعة المستوى للإنتاج والترجمة بهدف استيعاب مكتسبات التطور العلمي والتكنولوجي والثقافي بلغة عربية واضحة مع تشجيع التأليف والنشر وتصدير الإنتاج الوطني الجيد؛
تكوين صفوة من المتخصصين يتقنون مختلف مجالات المعرفة باللغة العربية و بعدة لغات أخرى، تكون من بينهم أطر تربوية عليا ومتوسطة.
113- ابتداء من السنة الأكاديمية 2000-2001 ، تحدث أكاديمية اللغة العربية باعتبارها، مؤسسة وطنية ذات مستوى عال، مكلفة بتخطيط المشروع المشار إليه أعلاه، وتطبيقه وتقويمه بشكل مستمر. وتضم تحت سلطتها المؤسسات والمراكز الجامعية المهتمة بتطوير اللغة العربية.”
وإذ ينص الميثاق بوضوح على أهمية وأولوية اللغة العربية، فإن ذلك إنما ينبع من دستور المملكة الذي يدعو الى تعزيز حضور اللغة العربية واستعمالها في مختلف المجالات وعلى رأسها التعليم، ناصا على أن ذلك “كان ولا يزال وسيبقى طموحا وطنيا”.( انظر المادة 110).
فأين أكاديمية اللغة العربية التي نص الميثاق على ضرورة تأسيسها منذ 18 سنة مضت؟ من المسؤول عن عدم إخراجها لتتولى الإشراف على تدريس العلوم باللغة العربية في الجامعة أسوة باللغة الفرنسية؟
ثالثا: على الرغم من أن الرؤية الاستراتيجية لم ترقى إلى مستوى التوافق الذي حصل في الميثاق، فإنها تعتبر اللغة العربية لغة التدريس الأساس، بينما يقتصر التدريس باللغة الأجنبية على بعض المضامين أو المجزوءات ( انظر الرافعة 13 من الرؤية الاستراتيجية). ولم تتعرض الرؤية لمسألة تدريس العلوم في الابتدائي أبدا باللغة الأجنبية، كما حصرت الأمر في الثانوي الاعدادي والثانوي على بعض فقط وليس كل المجزوءات. كما نصت على تدريس بعض هذه المجزوءات باللغة الانجليزية. فماذا فعلت الوزارة الوصية في مسألة التدريس بالإنجليزية؟ وما هي الاجراءات المتخذة لجعل اللغة العربية لغة التدريس الأساس ؟ ولماذا لا يتم الاعتماد على ما أنتجه معهد تنسيق التعريب في مجال إنتاج المصطلحات العلمية التي تصل إلى 40 معجما، يشتمل على أكثر من مئة ألف (100,000) مصطلح (عربي انجليزي فرنسي) في مختلف التخصصات العلمية، ومتفق عليها أكاديميا؟
رابعا: إن اللغة العربية جزء جوهري في تشكيل الشخصية المغربية وطرق تفكيرها، وهذا يرتبط في جزء منه بكون اللغة العربية لغة القرآن والسنة بوصفهما مرجعي رسالة الاسلام العالمية. ولعل هذه الخاصة المميزة للغة العربية هي ما جعلت الأمازيغ، كما مختلف شعوب العالم في مختلف القارات، يقبلون عليها ويتعلمونها. وليس عبثا أن جل المدارس القرآنية ناجحة في الجبال التي يقطنها المتحدثون باللسان الأمازيغي في سوس والأطلس والريف، وتدرس اللغة العربية ويتحدث بها خريجو هذه المدارس بإتقان.
وهذا ما يؤهل اللغة العربية لتكون محفزة على الابداع والاختراع في العلوم، وتعزيز الثقة بالنفس. كما كان الشأن في الماضي البعيد الذي تصدرت فيه الحضارة العربية والاسلامية العالم، منطلقة من فكرة بيت الحكمة في العصر العباسي، الذي كانت وظيفته الترجمة، وبذلك أصبحت اللغة العربية تحمل قيما أصيلة تبلورت في إطار الثقافة الإسلامية، وفي الآن نفسه لغة حضارة متنوعة وكبيرة يشكل الانقطاع عنها سقوطا مدويا لنا.
خامسا: لأن العشرين (20 ) دولة الأكثر تقدما في مجال التعليم في العالم تدرس بلغتها الوطنية، رغم أن لغة العلم هي اللغة الإنجليزية.
وكل هذه الدول تعتمد بالدرجة الأولى على الترجمة، وفي أسوأ الحالات تدرس مجزوءات محدودة بالإنجليزية وفق مخطط ينتهي بالرجوع إلى اللغة الوطنية. وحسب تقرير منظمة التعاون الاقتصادي والتنمية لسنة 2015 ، فهذه الدول هي: سنغافورة، هونج كونج، كوريا الجنوبية، اليابان ، تايوان، فنلندا، إستونيا، سويسرا، هولندا،كندا، بولندا، فيتنام، ألمانيا، أستراليا، إيرلندا، بلجيكا، نيوزيلندا، سلوفينيا، النمسا، بريطانيا. أضف إلى ذلك أن الدول الأكثر تقدما اقتصاديا ادرس بلغتها الوطنية كذلك مثل الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية، الصين، روسيا، ألمانيا، اليابان، فرنسا، اسبانيا. وحتى اسرائيل تدرس بالعبرية.
إن هذه الأسباب وغيرها كثير تستوجب جعل اللغة العربية لغة التدريس في كل أسلاك التعليم بدل الفرنسية. وعدم فعل ذلك لا يمكن رده مطلقا لأسباب علمية أو منطقية، بل فقط وحصرا يعود إلى غياب إرادة سياسية حقيقية للارتقاء باللغة العربية وإعطائها مكانتها المستحقة حتى تكون لغة القطاعات الحيوية في المجتمع. ولا يتأتى ذلك إلا بمخطط على المدى القريب والمدى المتوسط والمدى البعيد يجعل اللغة العربية لغة العلوم والاقتصاد والإدارة، ولغة فرص الشغل في مختلف المهن. مع الانفتاح على اللغات الأجنبية عبر تدريسها، وليس التدريس بها، وخصوصا اللغة الانجليزية. ويبقى السؤال العريض والكبير:

إذا كان الدستور والميثاق واضحين في مسألة مكانة اللغة العربية في التدريس، بوصفهما الوثيقتين المجمع حولهما من قبل القوى الحية للشعب المغربي، فمن أين يستمد واضعوا مشروع قانون الإطار رقم 17.51 المتعلق بمنظومة التربية والتعليم والتكوين والبحث العلمي مشروعية تعميم التدريس باللغة الفرنسية تحت مسمى التناوب اللغوي؟

نشر في العمق المغربي يوم 26 – 02 – 2019

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